Neuron system of unusually aggressive bees in Japan (Fujiyuki et al. 2009). Kakugo virus shares 98% genome similarity with DWV-A but seems to enhance aggressive behaviors that have not been identified in DWV-A infections. These DWV subtypes have different regional distributions. Kakugo virus might have limited distribution in East Asia and be better adapted to environments with both domestic European and Asian honey bees based on my preliminary survey. However, this preliminary observation was not fully supported by Zhang et al., published in this research topic.
They analyzed four different genome fragments from DWV variants identified in European and Asian honey bees, wasps, and stingless bees, taxa that were poorly addressed in Spain phone number list previous studies. Another interesting research direction of the DWV quasi-species is how these subtypes compete within the same host and if Varroa mite has a specific role in the subtype competitions. Bai et al., (in this research topic) used long-read sequencing, also known as third-generation sequencing, to identify associations between DWV variants and Varroa mite haplotypes. They showed that DWV variants associated with mites tend to be regionally distributed. Penn et al.
Investigated the factors that could affect DWV subtypes within the same bee species, Apis mellifera, under different treatments. Interestingly, they found that creating a wound on the bees alone could significantly alter the infection dynamics between DWV-A and - B, and infection intensities were distributed differently in tissues. Identifying novel anti-pathogenic molecules in honey bees is always an interesting challenge. Insects have vast diversity, including in their responses to pathogens. Some common immune responses of insects have been listed in textbooks, such as melanization cascades that involve phenol-oxidase and cellular immune responses that use phagocytosis.